Polyamide, also known as nylon, is mainly used for synthetic fibers. Its most outstanding advantage is that its wear resistance is higher than that of all other fibers. Its wear resistance is 10 times higher than cotton and 20 times higher than wool. Adding some polyamide fibers into blended fabric can greatly improve its wear resistance. When polyamide fabric is stretched to 3-6%, its elastic recovery rate can reach 100%. It can withstand tens of thousands of flexures without breaking. The strength of polyamide fiber is 1-2 times higher than cotton, 4-5 times higher than wool and 3 times higher than viscose fiber. However, the heat resistance and light resistance of polyamide fiber are poor, and the retention is not good, so the clothes made of polyamide fiber are not as crisp as polyester. The new polyamide fiber has the characteristics of light weight, excellent wrinkle resistance, good air permeability, good durability, dyeability and heat setting, so it is considered to have an optimistic development prospect.
Polyamide fiber is the earliest synthetic fiber variety in industrial production. It belongs to aliphatic polyamide fiber. The nylon yarn has high yield and wide application. It is the main synthetic fiber after polyester. Nylon is mainly filament, with a small amount of nylon staple fiber. Nylon filament is mainly used to make strong silk, socks, underwear, sweatshirts and so on. Nylon staple fiber is mainly blended with viscose fiber, cotton, wool and other synthetic fibers, and used as clothing fabric. Nylon can also be used as tire cord, parachute, fishing net, rope and conveyor belt in industry.
Nylon yarn is the trade name of polyamide fiber. The focused structure of nylon is closely related to stretching and heat treatment in spinning process. Nylon twisted yarn is mainly filament yarn, and there is also a small amount of nylon staple fiber. Nylon twisted yarn is suitable for knitting and weaving, covering all textile fields.
The main physical and chemical properties of nylon (nylon yarn twisting) are as follows:
The longitudinal plane of nylon is straight and smooth, and its cross section is round. Nylon is alkali resistant and acid resistant. In inorganic acid, amide bond on nylon macromolecule will break.
2. Hygroscopicity and Dyeability
The hygroscopicity of nylon yarn is better among common synthetic fibers. Under general atmospheric conditions, the moisture regain is about 4.5%. In addition, the dyeability of nylon yarn is also good. It can be dyed with acid dyes, disperse dyes and other dyes.
3. Strong Elongation and Wear Resistance
Nylon yarn has high strength, large elongation and excellent elasticity. Its breaking strength is about 42 ~ 56 cn/tex, and its elongation at break reaches 25% ~ 65%. Therefore, nylon has excellent wear resistance and ranks first among common textile fibers. It is an ideal material for making wear-resistant products. However, the initial modulus of nylon is small, and it is easy to deform, so its fabric is not stiff.
4. Light Resistance and Heat Resistance
Because the terminal groups of nylon macromolecules are sensitive to light and heat, nylon yarn is easy to become yellow and brittle. Therefore, nylon yarn has poor light resistance and heat resistance, and is not suitable for making outdoor fabrics. In addition, nylon is corrosion-resistant, so it can prevent mildew and insects.
Nylon yarn can keep the bending deformation when heated. The filament can be made into elastic yarn, and staple fiber can be blended with cotton and acrylic fiber to improve its strength and elasticity. In addition to the application in underwear and decorations, it is also widely used in industries such as cords, transmission belts, hoses, ropes, fishing nets, tires, parachutes and so on. Its wear resistance is 10 times that of cotton fiber, 10 times that of dry viscose fiber and 140 times that of wet fiber. It has excellent durability.
The hygroscopicity of nylon yarn fabric is better among synthetic fiber fabrics, so the clothing made of nylon yarn fabric is more comfortable to wear than polyester clothing. It has good moth and corrosion resistance. Ironing temperature should be controlled below 140 degrees Celsius. Pay attention to the washing and maintenance conditions during wearing and using, so as not to damage the fabric. In synthetic fiber fabrics, it is only behind polypropylene and acrylic fabrics.
Nylon fiber fabrics can be divided into three categories: pure spinning, blended and interwoven fabrics.
There are many varieties in each category, which are briefly introduced below:
1. Pure Nylon Textile
All kinds of fabrics made of nylon, such as nylon taffeta, nylon crepe, etc., are made of nylon filament, so they have the characteristics of smooth hand feeling, firmness, durability and moderate price. They also have the disadvantages that the fabrics are easy to wrinkle and difficult to recover. Nylon taffeta is mostly used for light clothing, down jacket or raincoat cloth, while nylon crepe is suitable for summer dresses, spring and autumn dual-purpose shirts, etc.
2. Nylon Blended and Interwoven Fabrics
The fabric obtained by blending or interweaving nylon filament or staple fiber with other fibers has the characteristics and advantages of each fiber. Such as viscose/nylon gabardine, which is made by blending 15% nylon and 85% viscose, has the characteristics of double warp density than weft density, thick texture, tenacity and durability. Disadvantages are poor elasticity, easy to wrinkle, low wet strength and easy to sag when worn. In addition, there are also some common fabrics, such as viscose/nylon valine and viscose/nylon/wool tweed.